Canadian Cyber Crime Research

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This has forced the Government of Canada to protect individuals from the threats presented. From 2010, an estimated $254 million has been used by Public Safety Canada to defend the computer networks of the government. More has been done to create awareness to the public. The main challenge is that Canada has not fostered an agency that is central that can be used in tracking the cyber-crimes. An example of cyber-crime in Canada in February 2000 whereby a series of attacks were made against known websites such as CNN, Yahoo, Dell, Amazon.com and eBay.

Crime that is related to a computer alongside the use of a network is termed as cyber-crime or computer crime. This is because the computer is used to commit the crime. According to Jaishankar and Debarati Halder, cyber-crime entails offences that are made by people or a group of people with the intention of harming others by utilising a network of telecommunication mainly the internet. Cyber-crimes have major consequences to the security or even finances of a country or an individual. Another consequence occurs when private information is disclosed. There are various categories of cyber-crime which may be considered either illegal or unethical. However the main types are of high-profile. This encompasses crimes such as copyright infringement, hacking, child grooming and pornography. Internationally, cyber-crimes is carried out by state officials and they may engage in financial theft, espionage and crimes across the border.

Under the category of fraud and financial crimes, we consider an illegal cyber-crime that entails theft and fraud. The computer has been used to carry out fraud and identity theft. The use of malware has been common. There is also hacking and phishing involved under this type of cyber-crime. A hacker can be defined as someone who has access to either a computer or a computer network in a way that is not lawful. Mostly they are behind leaking the security of a certain network. Back then, most hackers were considered to be ethical as long as they followed the law. This meant there was no illegal access to a network system. Their aim was to fix flaws present in the security system by first involving the vendor of the software. With time, came the crackers who break into network system illegally. They mainly create their own tools pertaining to the software. Since they break the laws, it is difficult to track them. Hacking has serious consequences especially if the hackers are trained and have skills that are advanced. Knowledge in programming enables them to come up with computer viruses or worms.

Fraud happens when data is altered without authority. You may find that employees in a company enter the wrong data or use instructions that are not authorized. Also, there are cases of hiding transactions that have not been authorized. Another form of fraud entails deleting or changing data that has been stored common in banks.

Under personal crimes, the main form of cybercrime involved is harassment or trolling which we can consider to be unethical. Cyber harassment involves directing obscene content to people for instance that targets their gender, nationality, race, sexual orientation or religion. The main form of harassment takes place in chat rooms. Also, it may entail sending people e-mails of hate.

Also, under this category, we can define drug trafficking as illegal cybercrime. Here, we hear of cases where dark net markets exist and there are online drug stores where people buy or sell drugs. Those involved in the trafficking normally use messaging tools that are encrypted during communication with the mules.

Cyber-crimes can violate intellectual property rights and this may be considered illegal. The main type is copyright which entails using the works of people without their permission. This is commonly termed as copyright infringement since the work is sheltered by the copyright law. By copyright, we mean the rights that are legal granted to owners of work in a country as long as it is original.

In Canada, not many cases of cyber-crimes are reported. For instance in 2009, the General Social Survey (GSS) made the effort of collecting data regarding the number of persons who have reported cases of victimization through the internet. With the information collected, it was possible to establish that many received hate e-mails.

In Canada, the government has undertaken domestic strategies for instance the Cyber Security Strategy which was launched by the Federal Government with the aim of curbing cyber threats. Another effect has been made by the Canada’s anti-spam legislation (CASL) in response to the anti-spam laws. Internationally, Canada has participated in the Convention on Cyber-crime with the aim of fighting cyber-crime through cooperating with other countries.

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Source: Canadian Cyber Crime Research

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What is Stem Cell Treatment | Research Paper Writing Service

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Thesis Statement

This assignment is a detailed explanation on how the use of stem cells can be used for treating different diseases and condition especially those involving an accident.

Introduction

The concept of stem cell therapy in the practice of modern science has emerged as a revolving as wel as a promising treatment particularly for critical spinal cord injuries. This new approach to treatment of critical injury conditions has been made posible due to the character of stem cells to vary in their ability to help in the medical process of restoring injured muscle function. In addition, the stem cell science holds a critical and crucial key to ideal treatment protocol that remains unclear to the entire medical science and calls for further clinical research.

However, in spite of all these pending questions, the science of stem cells still holds the key to the betterment of the close to half a million americans who suffer different life changing acute spinal cord injuries each year. Such injuries lead to different levels of neurological compromise over such issues as inflammatory responses as well as other cell death within the inured part of the spinal cord. However, through the application of the new stem cell science, there is a new hope. This has been attributed to the ability of the stem cells to self-renew human cells that can differentiate in different or in to more than one type of specific cells. Owing to this, the successful use of stem cell in medical science holds a great promise to the treatment of spinal cord injuries which have the potential to improve on the limitation of existing cell death, ability to stimulate renewed growth in existing cells as well as in replacing injured cells.

The biology of stem cell

The biology or idea of stem cell entails two classical definitions. There is the self-renewal stem cell or cell that has the ability to undergo different cycles of cell division but maintaining their characteristic undifferentiated states as well as the potency of the cell or the capacity of the different cell to differentiate them into specialized cell types. This aspect of potency allows the cell to either totipotent or pluripotent in order to be able to develop into any form of mature cell type.

However, in some cases, multi-potent or un-potent progenitor cells are also treated and classified as stem cells. Stem cells posse two basic mechanisms that low them to obtain an obligatory systematic replication or a character under which a cell divides into a single mother cell that is exactly identical to the original stem cell as well as another daughter cell that is distinctly differentiated. Subsequently, depending on the specific need, some stem cells have the capacity for stochastic differentiation under which a single cell may develop into different differentiated daughter cells while another one undergoes mitosis and hence produces two stem cells that is exact replica of the original. Therefore, in the end, nothing new or untoward is produced from this type of cell.

How stem cells are different and unique from other cells

Stem cell are different from other cells from other cell in the human body through or due to their characteristic three properties their ability to divide and renew themselves for longer periods their unspecialized nature as well as their capacity and ability to give rise to all specialized type of cell which is probably why your medical team holds the opinion that you may need some stem cell for your treatment. You see in the case of spinal cord injuries like yours, the spinal cord has some very specialized type of cell that is highly fragile and incapable of self-regeneration over a longer period of time. In addition, once injured such cell may fail to proliferate themselves again unlike the stem cell and thereby remain unspecialized for the specific and sensitive functions of the spinal cord like the original cell were prior to the injury. This most likely is the reason why your medical team feels that stem cells may hold the key to some fundamental properties in your injury that relates to the long-term self-renewal in order to achieve a more potent healing.

The different types of stem cells

There are many different types of stem cells probably due to the fact that stem cells from the foundation of every organ and tissue in the body. However, in the words of Nierras (2018), the major ones include;

The embryonic stem cells

These are main obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst such as the hollow ball of cells which in human develops three to five days after fertilization.

Advantages

These are advantageous in that they give rise to every cell in the fully formed body. Additionally, they provide valuable renewable resources for the study of the normal human development and disease, testing drugs and other diseases.

Disadvantages

  • Unfortunately, that they are not compatible with the placenta.
  • Tissues specific stem cells

Advantages

  • These stem cells are more specialized compared to the embryonic stem cells. Characteristically, they have the capacity to generate different cell types to a specific organ over which they live in the body.
  • The study of this cell has provided an increased understanding of the normal development, the specific changes that come with age as well as the deeper science of injury and disease.

Disadvantages

  • They are not easy to locate in the human body as well as they don’t seem to possess the capacity for self-renewal in culture as easily as does the embryonic stem cells.

Induced plenipotentiary stem cells

These are a type of stem cell engineered in the lab by the conversion of tissue to specific cells such as skin cells into the new cell that functions as the embryonic stem cells.

Advantages

  • They help scientist in learning more about normal development as well as disease onset and progression. Additionally, they are also used for the development and testing of new drugs and therapies.

Disadvantages

  • Though they share many of their characteristics, with embryonic stem cells, they are not exactly the same.

How stem cells can be used to treat disease and injuries of the spinal cord

In most cases, spinal cord injuries lead to loss of the nervous tissue hence the ultimate loss of motor and sensory functions. Medically, in the words of Newson (2016), there is not yet a specific cure that can restore such injury-induced loss of nerve function. However, with the use of stem cells and progenitors, many spinal injuries can be managed through support and repair. This is made possible by the characteristic nature of stem cells for self-renewal as well as their ability adapt to each and any organism. In this regard, many promising results have been obtained from experimental SCI models. There are, however, many more related issues that need to be resolved.

A successful case study of the use of stem cell in treatment of diseases or injuries

The science of stem cells has been used in the treatment and the prevention of diseases and injuries and other associated conditions. For example according to Snyder (2012),  in regard to spinal cord injuries the science of stem cell has increasingly been used in the treatment of stroke and other traumatic injuries which would otherwise have led to cell death and other conditions such as the loss of neurons and other forms of oligodendrocytes occasioned by the spinal cord injuries.

Conclusion

The science of stem cells has come in handy in helping scientist to better understand the exact functioning of the different types of cells, especially in the spinal cord. Due to this, the science of stem cells has gifted the medical field a promise for a breakthrough over spinal cord injury treatment and repair. Therefore I feel that the future use of the stem cells will be irreplaceable for therapeutic purpose as in your case my dear friend.

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References

Snyder, E, Y. (2012). Neural transplantation: an approach to cellular plasticity in the developing central nervous system. Review. Semin Perinatol.2012; 16(2):106–121

Marin, O. (2016). Stem cell-based therapies for spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2678281/

Blelloch, R et al. (2007). Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of drug selection. Cell Stem Cell.2007; 1(3):245–247.

Nierras, C, R. (2018). The promise of human induced pluripotent stem cells for research and therapy. Review. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol.2018; 9(9):725–729

Newson, A, et al. (2016). Artificial gametes: new paths to parenthood. J Med Ethics.2016; 31(3):184–186.

Source: What is Stem Cell Treatment | Research Paper Writing Service

DACA Executive Order | Research Paper Writing Service

 

The Executive wing of the Government administers laws enacted by the legislature. The legislature is a deliberative assembly that focuses on making laws while the judiciary has the powers to interpret and apply laws to certain cases. This custom paper will focus on how executive orders tend to interfere with the powers of other arms of government and what its action say about the powers of the branch.

Executive Orders

During the Obama’s presidency, much was made of his executive orders concerning immigration. These were two varying orders, one touching on children who were brought to U.S. illegally as minors, while the other one touched on adults who were living in US illegally but who had family members who were living in US legally (MPI, 2018). Though the Republicans referred this as executive amnesty, the orders fell short of this. What Obama did was to instruct federal prosecutors and immigration officials to give priority to undocumented immigrants who committed criminal acts over all other groups.

Obama’s directive instructed prosecutors and immigration officials to place the kids covered by the 1storder and the adults by the 2ndat the very back of the line for deportation. Moreover, it was required/mandatory of members of such groups to register for work permits to make it possible for them to work legally for 2 years in US, after which time their status could be assessed again (MPI, 2018). The challenge with Obama’s directive is that they contravene pieces of legislation passed by congress. For instance, existing immigration law orders both directed prosecutorial discretion and the giving of temporary work permits.

DACA, approved in 2016, grew out of policy previously referred to as DREAM Act (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) that was initially proposed in 2001, and would have offered a path to full citizenship for individuals who entered United States of America illegally as children (Hecht, 2017). The DREAM Act floated around Washington without being passed. The program was meant to be part of a bipartisan immigration reform bill in 2007, but that Congress did not approve wider law. The closest that the program got was in 2010, about halfway through Barrack’s  first term, when many supported it in both houses, but it failed to garner a clear the 60-vote threshold to pass a Senate filibuster.

Requirements for DACA

  • One was supposed to be below the age of 31 years as of June 15, 2012;
  • One must have entered United States prior to their 16th birthday;
  • One was required to have continuously stayed in the United States from June 15, 2007 until the present time; (Barbero, 2014)
  • One was required to have been physically present in America on June 15, 2012 and at the time when one was submitting their application
  • One is supposed to have arrived in United States without documents before June 15, 2012, or their lawful status expired as of June 15, 2012 (Barbero, 2014)
  • One is presently supposed to be presently studying, or one to have graduated from high school or acquired a certificate of completion of high school or GED, or have been honorably discharged from the Coast Guard or military.
  • One is not supposed to have been convicted of a felony, particular serious misdemeanors (like single DUI), or more than three misdemeanors of any form.

After Obama issued the executive order, Republicans assailed it as an unconstitutional power grab by the executive arm of the government (presidency). They pointed out that the president does not have the legal authority to amend or make laws inside the Constitution without seeking the approval of Congress (Hecht, 2017). Critics of the policy have argued that executive branch was duty-bound to execute immigration laws, and deport people who living in USA illegally unless they were given protection by law approved by Congress. In 2013, the Republican House voted to discontinue the program.

In its defence, Obama’s administration pointed out that the executive wing on the government has a huge latitude when it came to enforcement of immigration. They indicated that since Immigration and Customs Enforcement did not possess any powers, time, or the finances to deport everybody, enforcement would have to by necessity prioritize going after particular immigrants and not others (Hecht, 2017). In his remarks, Obama pointed out that the lack of any immigration action by Congress to rectify America’s broken immigration system, what his administration was trying to do was to channel its immigration enforcement resources in the right places.

In its wisdom, Congress pointed out that the limits of Obama’s actions were wider than the law intended and that the giving of work permits demanded a case-by-case assessment, which Obama’s program did not sufficiently perform. In summary, the conflict over these orders was not about Obama establishing new laws; it all focused on Obama administration and Congress interpreting existing law differently (MPI, 2018).

These executive orders implies/ portray executive orders as examples of president overreaching and attempting to make laws on his own without consulting first with Congress, and it may also imply the use executive orders as the beginning of a dictatorship. The executive orders affects the powers of the branch as given by the Constitution in that it gives presidents powers to do as they please without consulting anyone or congress and which might provide a ripe ground for dictatorship (Jones .et.al, 2015).

The action shown by the executive might affect its relationship with congress in that congress would view this as an act of the executive wing overstepping its mandate and performing roles meant for Congress. It may also affect how the executive relates to judiciary since it was not consulted when it comes to matters interpreting the law. It is based on this that Congress invited the judicial branch to weigh in and settle the issue. The courts sided with Congress’s interpretation of the law and suspended Obama’s order so that it was never executed.

Conclusion

All the three arms of the government have separate powers and each as their own unique roles. However, the other arm can interfere with the actions of one arm of government. These interferences may be to support its actions or prevent it from carrying out certain actions

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