Correctional Agencies | Assignment Writing Service

Issues in the management of older prisoners

Health concerns

It is a well-known fact that the most immediate and evident challenge facing older prisoners relates to decline in mental and physical health. Moreover, considering the accelerated biological aging process, inmates who are chronologically 50 years of age is expected to exhibit the start of age-related health issues.The health problems that correctional agencies have to deal with include dealing with chronic illnesses / terminal illness, fear of death, pain management, decreased the level of mobility, disabilities and cognitive impairment (UNODC, 2009).

Suitability of prison programs

The prison environment and programs were designed to cater to the needs of younger offenders. Failure to have the right and meaningful programs for elderly prisoners is an issue for the correctional agencies more so when it comes to the provision of a wide range of programs like education, vocation &exercise. Majority of prison education programs are based on literacy & numeracy skills (targeting younger offenders) & the physical education offered are too challenging/unsuitable for the elderly prisoners, who may be forced to contend with younger prisoners dominating exercise equipment (Criminology, 2011)

Rising expenses

About the increasing numbers of older prisoners, it has been noted that high health care costs are a grave concern for the policymakers, correctional agencies, and the government. According to a study that was carried out in Australia and the United States, it was noted that the expenses of accommodating the elderly prisoners was roughly three times higher than it was for the younger prisoners. This might be regarding employing specialized staff (i.e.,.in palliative care or gerontology). It has been estimated that it costs roughly $25,000 annually to house a young offender while the expenses for housing an older prisoner is roughly $ 72,000 a year(Aday, 2013, p, 47).

Vulnerability to victimization

Available research shows that the elderly prisoners more so those having limited mobility, frailty & disability are viewed by other & themselves to be more vulnerable to victimization than the young prisoners. Correctional facilities are struggling with the issue of not having trained prison staff or those trained reluctant to pushing wheelchairs hence exposing the dependent wheelchair- prisoners to victimization. An interview conducted among older inmates in the UK & US showed that more than half the elderly prisoners had experienced bullying &intimidation’ and more than 60 % felt unsafe.

Unique needs

Staffing, services, and programs

As it was noted earlier, the older prisoners are likely to suffer from chronic illness due to their age, and as a result, they require specialized services. Trained personnel will need to be hired to look out for their needs minimizing their suffering (Aday, 2013, p, 97). Alternative programs which align with the needs & conditions of the elderly needs to be developed.

Special needs units

The reported merits of having such units are the same to that of nursing home prisons. These units have a centralized resource that lowers expenses related to staffing, medical care, transportation, & age-segregation of prisoners hence minimizing the challenges of victimization. This enhances a more enabling targeted programming & rehabilitation initiative.

More funding

The correctional agencies require more funding so as to be best placed to cater to the broad needs of the aging prisoners who have more needs that the younger offenders.

Part 2

Security Threat Groups have been reported to represent a growing problem to the safety and security of correctional institutions. The challenges are expressed in various forms and which ranges from involvement in major incident, distribution of drugs, increased rates of violence, higher rates of racial & ethnic, tensions, undermining the rehabilitative programming by supporting criminogenic principles, engaging in criminal business, & contributing to the collapse of community reintegration in the event the parolees return to gang activities when released (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2009).

Correctional Violence

According to a recent study by the Department of Corrections for Washington State indicated that Security Threat Groups represented roughly 23% of Washington’s 19,000 inmates. However, they accounted for 46% of all the major violent incidents in the prisons (Dininny, 2009). In line with this finding, Fischer (2012) observed that between 1994 and 2000, prison gang members in Arizona’s Department of Corrections were 78% likely to take part in serious violence than non-gang members.

Threaten/manipulate prison staff

This aspect poses an enormous challenge to the safe operation of penitentiaries to the degree to which Security Threat Groups attempts to compromise prison employees’ through their use of associates within the society. Wilkinson and Delgado (2011), for example, said that gang members collectively attempted to manipulate and intimidate prison officials. Another example is the 1997 and 2001 killing of correctional officers Diane Lavigne and Pierre Rondeau by the Hell’s Angels. This illustrates depths to which Security Threat Groups will reach into the society to warn, injure, or kill correctional officials.

Sabotage the rehabilitative program

Security Threat Groups may also try to sabotage the rehabilitative program within a facility.) It was established that for example, that gangs involved juveniles tries to undercut educational or therapeutic programs (Colon, 2004, p, 39). There is a high possibility that similar behaviors do happen in adult corrections. A similar study from the Correctional Service of Canada (2009) pointed out that gang members placed priority on illegal activities instead of rehabilitation and reintegration programs. Such action, in turn, discourages other prisoners from taking part in case management plans, rehabilitation, and reintegration.

Measures of dealing with STG

It should be noted that, just like other types of criminal activities, that the root cause of STGs are mostly complicated. However, regardless of the strategies to used, it needs to be accompanies by adequate funding plus well trained and skilled employees to adequately respond to dealing with the threats posed by having STG. Moreover, the right resources need to be availed so that all actions are adequately boosted. For instance, employee shortages, overcrowding, and cut-backs on resource, would undermine the success of any gang management strategy (Carlson, & Garrett, 2012). Lastly, just like all social issues, what is ultimately required is collaborative &cooperative mechanism to solve the sophisticated nature of Security Threat Groups and prison gangs within today’s correctional facilities.


Aday R .2013. Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger
Carlson, P. M., & Garrett, J. S. (2012). Prison and jail administration: Practice and theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Pub.
Colon, T. (2004, April). Gang members in juvenile detention: A California Story. Presented at The Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Symposium, California State University, Chico.
Criminology, A. I. (2011, August 24). Older prisoners—A challenge for Australian corrections. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Australian Institute of Criminology:
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2009. Handbook on prisoners with special needs. New York: United Nations
Wilkinson, R.A. & Delgardo, A. (2006). Prison gang and drug investigations: An Ohio approach. Corrections Today, 36-40

Source: Correctional Agencies | Assignment Writing Service

Research on an Existing or Emerging Technology and Its Related Ethical Issues

Some of the emerging technological and ethical issues include Privacy, Security, copyright infringement, and increased computer crimes. (Bauer, 2017), In this paper privacy as an issue of digital technology will be discussed. Privacy can be defined as the state of being secluded from the view of others and it implies personally indefinable information. Even though information technology has enabled us to share and find relevant information on the internet, it has infringed our freedom of privacy hence disclosing private information of individuals and even institutions. The topic of privacy will be discussed in the second assignment under the following subtopics. 1. How do we establish internet that can’t be hacked? 2. Who has the authority to ensure the privacy of users is assured?   3. What regulations and measures of information are the government agencies allowed to access specific individuals? This will form the basis of the second assignment.

Emerging Technology

Personal and private lives have been accessed by the users of the internet through applications like a webcam. This is able to display people’s details, information and personal life which are not right. This has happened to many celebrities like Dharun Ravia former Rutgers University. (Reamer, 2013).  This, therefore, makes an ethic that draws the line between ensuring network security and breaching user privacy.

Another issue is that important credentials like your credit card number or bank account details on the shopping portal when doing an online shopping. There is a possibility of these details being used unethically or for fraudulent purposes. The online retailers May need to collect.

data about your online behavior and use it in user profiling. They may be having the intention to improve their business by profiling and getting a feedback on the shopping. But the users go ahead to use this information in an ethical manner to track you and harm you without your knowledge. This can also take place when carrying out banking transactions online, malicious users may obtain your information when trying to share it with the bank. This unkempt behavior can cause theft.

Government and Other Agencies have many important data about people companies and institutions. If the security of this data is compromised, it can threaten national security. If the Federal websites do not need to maintain too high standards of privacy considering that they store such large amounts of critical information. They also need to use the information responsibly and their national security will be guaranteed.

The use of social networks like Facebook, twitter email, Instagram etc. helps the user to connect with other users. This allows them to share information, photos and even like them(Glenn, 2017). This might lead your friends to share your information with other users who might be malicious and may threaten your personal security. In other social media platforms like in forums, chat rooms, communities, and blogs, you can voice your opinions on any and everything. You are entitled to your opinions, but while voicing them, are you as responsible as you would be, you could be influencing others of different ages and backgrounds.

Source: Research on an Existing or Emerging Technology and Its Related Ethical Issues

Psychology Research Paper on Schizophrenia | Research Paper Writing Service


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It also causes patients to have difficulty in expressing normal emotions in social situations. The disorder affects about one percent of the world population with most people holding misconception concerning this disorder where the public perception suggests that it is split personality or multiple personality which is not true (McGrath, Saha, Chant, & Welham, 2008). Patients with schizophrenia disorder have been observed not to be dangerous or violent. They also do not live in hospitals for cases of treatment. Moreover, they live happily with family members sometimes in group homes or on their own.


Researches that have been conducted shows that schizophrenia disorder affects both men and women in equal measures though it may have an earlier onset in males. The rate at which the disorder is found to affect all ethnic groups around the world is similar across the board. However, its causes and symptoms vary considerably between individuals. Schizophrenia is considered to be a group of disorders combined together.

Causes of Schizophrenia

            The cause of this disorder is still not proven thou scientists and psychologists hold some theories which might be the causes of schizophrenia. Such theories that could lead to successful and effective therapies include, possible viral infections and immune disorder, genetics due to heredity, environment, and biology which is the abnormalities in the structure or chemistry of the brain.

Genes and environment

Scientists believe that schizophrenia may sometimes be observed to run in families and patients may inherit tendencies to develop the disorder due to many different genes (Sullivan, 2005). This disorder mostly develops when a patient’s body undergoes both physical and hormonal changes such as those observed at adolescence for both boys and girls at their teen ages. Hormonal and physical changes may also occur when a person undergoes highly stressful situations.

The environmental aspects that are necessary for schizophrenia to develop may include; malnutrition during foetus development, problems experienced during birth, and psychosocial factors. Stressful situations may also play a bigger role in the development of schizophrenia (Parekh, 2017).


            The biological aspect involves the brain chemistry where scientists believe that schizophrenia is caused by the imbalance of brain chemicals or neurotransmitters such as glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine (consortium, 2014). The neurotransmitters enable the brain nerve cells to be able to communicate to each other. However, any imbalance of such chemicals in the brain causes abnormal effects on the person’s brain to react to stimuli. People with schizophrenia have been observed to be strongly affected by sensory information. Such sensory information includes, bright lights or loud music, which can be comfortably handled by other people.

The abnormal brain structure development may also be the cause of schizophrenia. Such problems include abnormal development of pathways and faulty connections in the brain during development in the womb may be the initiator of schizophrenia observed later in life. During puberty, the major hormonal changes that occur may lead to chemical imbalance in the brain triggering psychotic symptoms in people with genetic and brain differences who happen to be vulnerable.

Viral infections and immune disorders

            Babies whose mothers had flu while they were pregnant have been recognized to be at a risk of developing schizophrenia later in their life. Higher risks of schizophrenia development are also observed in people hospitalized for severe and chronic infections. Immune disorder may result in chemical imbalance in the brain due to lack of crucial chemicals such as potassium ions leading to schizophrenia.

Some drugs may also induce schizophrenia

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and marijuana are known to cause Schizophrenia relapses especially for individuals with psychotic illnesses (Steeds, Carhart-Harris, & Stone, 2015). Marijuana have been recognized to cause first episode for people vulnerable to psychotic illnesses. Prescription drugs such as steroids and stimulants are also believed by researchers to cause psychosis.

Early warning signs of developing schizophrenia

The following signs observed in people developing schizophrenia may differ from one person to another where in some it may develop slowly over years or months or may even appear very abruptly. In some people suffering from the disorder, the disease may undergo cycles of relapse and reemission. The early warning signs of developing schizophrenia are behavioral and may include; seeing or hearing things that are not there, they may feel that they are constantly being watched, unique and unusual way of writing or speaking, unfamiliar body positioning, developing poor academic and work performance, being dormant to very important situations, having a change in personal identity, deterioration of personal appearance and hygiene, increasing antisocial characteristics in social situations, developing fearful, irrational, or angry response to loved ones, development of insomnia, lack of proper concentration, unusual and inappropriate behavior, besides excessive preoccupation with particular religion or cult. When several of these signs are observed in individual for a period not less than one-week patients should seek medical advice or be aware of the development of the disorder.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

            Symptoms of this disorder is usually observed in individuals between the age of 16 to 30 with rare cases being reported in children. These symptoms are classified into two broad types, the positive symptoms and the negative symptoms. Where positive symptoms are those observed in people with the schizophrenia disorder and are absent in those people without the disorder. Negative symptoms are those exhibited by people without the disorder but are lack or missing among individuals with schizophrenia.

Positive symptoms

Such positive symptoms include, hallucinations which involves feeling, seeing, hearing, tasting, and smelling things that does not exist. Example of hallucination is hearing imaginary voices or seeing imaginary people giving commands or complement to the person with the disorder.

Delusions are the other symptoms of schizophrenia where an individual with the disorder may start believing in false ideas. The best example of such a symptom is when individuals believe they someone is spying on him or her. They may sometimes believe of being religious figures or someone famous.

Inappropriate behavior is also a symptom of schizophrenia. Such behaviors include problems following routine activities, like maintaining cleanliness, inability to choose appropriate clothing in regard to the weather condition. The person may also exhibit unethical outbursts, and unacceptable actions for usual and simple logical activities. An individual with such disorder may exhibit movements that are tense, agitated, anxious and constant with any particular reason. Such behaviors are unwarranted to normal people who may start developing suspicion on schizophrenia patients.

Inappropriate speech and thinking capabilities are the other symptoms of schizophrenia. Individuals with such condition may develop disordered speech by speaking out words or expressing sounds and rhymes in ways that does not make sense and may sometime repeat words and ideas without noticing such errors. Inappropriate thinking is exhibited when individuals move unknowingly from one topic to another in a nonsensical manner. Sometimes these individuals may end up discussing topics that are not in the context of the current discussion.

The negative symptoms may include;

            Social behavior withdrawal, where an individual may feel or want to seclude himself or herself from a social situation. Individual social behaviors are lost when they realize that they are always being looked down upon by colleagues when they make errors that seem so obvious.

Developing lack of interest or enthusiasm, particular interests are initiated by hormonal systems in the body. However, exhibition of hormonal imbalanced in the body may trigger one from developing dislike for what they once were interest in. development of inappropriate behaviors may also change an individual with schizophrenia to lack interest in things that he or she once thought are appropriate.

Lack of drive or initiative in an individual that was once self-driven in dealing with issues and solving problems is a symptom of schizophrenia. An individual with such disorder may lack the motivation to carry out obvious tasks such as washing and cooking through neglect.

A person may also develop poor expression of emotions. Patients may have different expressions for inappropriate occasions such as being happy in sad occasions like burial. An individual may lack any emotional expression all together becoming dull and unaware of the surrounding.

Patients may become unaware of illnesses due to hallucinations and delusions. Such positive symptoms may cause them to refuse taking medication or end up developing thoughts that medication may be poison.

Patients may also lose their cognitive ability which include inability to concentrate, recall things, organizing their life, and planning ahead. Their communication skills also deteriorate due to thought disorder.

Treatment of Schizophrenia

            The treatment of schizophrenia begins with diagnosis and tests. Diagnosis is required so that doctors can obtain information about patients’ medical and psychiatric history. Tests are required in order to eliminate other diseases that may trigger schizophrenia-like symptoms. Such tests include blood tests to exclude physical causes of illness and to eliminate suspicions of drug use as the causing factors, imaging studies done to rule out problems in the structure of the brain and also rule out any tumor. Psychological evaluation may also be conducted during tests to eliminate other possible mental health disorders that are not related to the disorder.

The actual treatment may relieve many of the symptoms in some patients however, most of the patients may end up coping with the symptoms for life. Such treatment includes a combination of medication, psychological counselling, and introduction of self-help resources. Anti-psychosis drugs have been developed to help transform the treatment of schizophrenia enabling patients to be able to participate in the community activities rather than staying back in health facilities. The most common medications for schizophrenia are categorized into typical antipsychotics which control the positive symptoms, example of such medications include Chlorpromazine and Mesoridazine, atypical antipsychotics treats both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia examples include aripiprazole, clozapine, risperidone which is less sedating than the rest of antipsychotics, olanzapine, Quetiapine, Ziprasidone and iloperidone and finally miscellaneous antiseptic agents such as loxapine used to treat agitation in people with schizophrenia. Such medications are used as the primary treatment of schizophrenia. Unfortunately, patients that have developed hallucination and delusion may fail to comply by following the correct prescription from the doctor (Byerly, Nakonezny, & Lescouflair, 2007).

The other treatment of schizophrenia is psychological counselling. Such counselling should deal with issues that will enable the patient to recover the ethical values and skills required to live independently and productively in the community. Psychological counselling incorporates programs that help patients regain and develop life skills such as socializing, washing, and cooking that are required for well being.

The development of self-help groups has also help patients with such disorder recover immensely. Such groups provide patients with support and information by individuals who once had similar disorders and this will help them realize possibilities of recovering form schizophrenia. Establishment of drop-in centers has also helped patients regain certain characteristics such as social behaviors through provision of necessary services and informal support.

The establishment of coordinated specialty care (CSC) have effectively improved outcomes for people who have experience their first episode of psychosis (Dixon, et al., 2015). Patients recovery from such disorders have been facilitated by implementation of multi-facetted program which utilizes decisions made by a group of individuals after interacting with the patient and the care provider to gain helpful information tat concern the health status of the patient.


In conclusion, more research need to be done in order to fully understand the causes of schizophrenia so that early preventions can be achieved. Scientists and psychologists should delve into much research on symptoms of schizophrenia in order to develop effective criteria for diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.


Source: Psychology Research Paper on Schizophrenia | Research Paper Writing Service

History of the Catholic Church In Kansas City

The first church in Kansas City was the St. John Francis Regis that was constructed in 1833 by a reverend known as Rev. Benedict. The presence of this building in Kansas City to date aroused my curiosity to examine the hidden information regarding the existence of the structure in the region as well as its origin. This analysis will be based on both primary and secondary sources for comprehensive acquisition of knowledge regarding the natives as well as the Catholic Church during this period. Thus, the primary information will provide background knowledge concerning the introduction, construction as well as the operational activities of the church in the ancient period. The paper provides the history of the Catholic Church in the city by providing information regarding its role amongst the people who occupied this city in the past.

Catholic Church

According to Thomas Hornbeck in “Historical Geography of the Catholic Church in Kansas City, Missouri, 1822-1930,the Catholic Church had a steadfast growth impacting the lives of the natives during its existence period. Considering Catholic history in this City facilitates a deeper informative knowledge regarding the geography as well as the culture of the natives of this region during the period considered. Nevertheless, the information is critical in establishing the social and political stands of the natives during this period associated with the religious structures which existed. In this context, the religious inclination was based on the Catholic church. Religion is considered a vital aspect of analyzing the population behavioral aspect as a social feature in the society. The missionaries facilitated the inclusion of Christianity amongst immigrants who moved to the United States of America in the nineteenth century, for instance, the Catholic Church. This church became one of the first churches in this region to influence the beliefs of the natives regarding religion. This book provides the history of French settlers who were first associated with the Catholic church in the region. The French population during this period engaged in a business where the main commodities required in this area were traded. The French Catholics marked the first religious settlers in Kansas City. Amongst these traded commodities were fur that was demanded by most buyers in the region. However, as the city developed other communities joined the French settlers in the region. These settlers include the Irish, Germans as well as the Italians who got interested in the City years after the French settlers had occupied the region.

The construction of this early church is associated with erection and demolishing of several Christian structures in the form of parish boundaries. In the process, several churches were closed as others were opened depicting the evolution of these churches. The construction process facilitated the spread of Christianity throughout the United States during the ancient period.

The emergence of the Catholic religion is associated with migration as well as the immigration in Kansas City in the ancient period. Moreover, the trade system establishes during this period is associated with the European settlers who occupied the City in the ancient period. Therefore, the city became a Metro known area for different businesses of the commodities that were highly demanded. The immigrants carried their cultural beliefs influencing the natives culture as well as religion. For instance, the western people brought commodities for trade such as goods as well services associated with their respective culture and religion. They used their religion to influence the beliefs of the Kansas City natives inhabitants.

The construction process of the city resulted in the deviations depicted in the globe starting with the Kansas City. In this context, the natives were able to adopt new forms of beliefs and cultural norms that was brought by the church amongst the inhabitants of Missouri. The church is associated with different forms of construction processes. The construction tasks were perceived as a source of employment opportunities amongst the natives of this City. This process resulted in certain ideologies regarding the architectural sector in the geographic region occupied during this period. According to Capps and Soto in their article, 13%of the Kansas City occupants by 2014 were immigrants linked to the Catholic faith in the region.

The Church doctrines led to the establishment of a Diocese led by Pope Leo XIII who pioneered its setting in the seventeenth century. The establishment of this building led to a high tower that attracted a reaction from several inhabitants in the region as well as beyond. Some of these unique features include the glasses that were stained and drew depicting biblical verses that were used to influence the perception of learners. The features also involved the sequential life of Christ regarded as an inspirational historical story. Moreover, there were eleven bells that were hanged in the building representing various saints that had served in the church before their deaths. These saints included St. Anne, St. Thomas, amongst others saints who existed during this period. The artisans during this period were involved in the establishment of the distinct features in the Cathedral building. For example, the structures forming windows, the doors as well as the roofing system were produced based on the artisans’ architectural advice. Thus, the inclusion of local artisan ideologies created the sense of ownership amongst the natives within this City.  The dwellers owned the religion due to the structures used to establish its beguiling in the region. The building symbolized the original aspects of the City depicting originality of the culture and senses of ownership amongst the locals.

The operation of the Catholic Church built in Kansas City influenced the lifestyle of the region natives. The religion that had just been introduced amongst the City natives recognized their cultural, social as well as the economic issues in their daily operations in the governing system from history. According to Shortridge the form of religion introduced amongst the natives by the immigrants resulted in the civilization process depicted through the interaction as well as the assimilation processes. Moreover, the civilization process led to the adoption of diversity as a result of the mixed races associated with different cultures within the City.

Source: History of the Catholic Church In Kansas City

Research on Congestive Heart Failure

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Overview (History) of the Disease

The understanding of Congestive Heart Failure has evolved for over 2500 years as explained by Remarkable history Congestive Heart Failure can be traced in Western medicine that gives insightful clinical description as far as the disease is concerned and can be attributed to Hippocrates in the ancient Greece according to Katz (2016).  Luiz Katz is mentioned as having played an important role in Congestive Heart Failure science between 1920s and 19 70s.  Anasarca, dyspnea, and edema were used to describe heart failure in the ancient Roman and Greek texts. There was a bit of pathological understanding of this disease which made evaluating its clinical description to be difficult.

Nursing Picture

Performing autopsies for identifications of causes of illness or deaths by physicians started in early 16th century and there was no related clinical finding that could be attributed to heart failure until 1628 when circulatory system was described by Harvey William which gave the basis of understanding the hemodynamic abnormalities related to heart failure. Major breakthrough came about with the coining of the “Law of the Heart” by Starling Ernest in 1918 which made the study of the functions of the heart and its failure more understandable (Pogwizd & Bers, 2004). In 1940s catheterization was introduced by Andre Cournand. Open heart surgery began in earnest in 1960s. Understanding the deterioration of the failing heart was buttressed in 1987 with the coming of molecular biology that made cardiology easy. Indeed, this is what nowadays defines the mechanisms through which cardiac science is performed. With advancement in technology, currently diagnostic tools and treatment of Congestive Heart Failure can be managed well and this gives an impressive future in the world of medicine.

Classification of the Disease

Congestive Heart Failure is classified into three classes which include class I, Class II, and Class III. Class I is where there are no restriction of physical activities and the patient is still able to control the disease. In the Class II, the patients will feel slight restrictions when he or she indulges in every day physical actions. Class III is when the patients experience definite limitations during physical activities and undue fatigue results. Lastly is the class VI where the patient is virtually unable to undertake any physical exercise or activity without feeling discomfort. Significant cardiac problems even occur while the patient is resting.

Signs and Symptoms of the Disease

There are several signs and symptoms that are associated with this diseases that sometimes if one is not keen at first it can be mistaken for another disease altogether. The most obvious sign that normally accompany the disease is the chest pain accompanied by lots of pressure and palpitation. This often comes in occasional stinging pain once in short intervals and disappears. It is thus, advisable for one to immediately seek medical attention once these short stinging chest pains are witnessed. Secondly, the patient would experience fatigue and weakness; is is associated with pressure that comes with the disease. It must be noted that lots of energy is used when there is high pressure used in the circulation of the blood. This drains substantial energy from the patient that would be otherwise used in other metabolic process thereby making the patient to feel weak and fatigued. This symptom is more or less similar to Distention of neck veins which is our third symptom of the Congestive Heart Failure. It is also referred to as the jugular venous distention. It is a situation where there occurs increased intravascular fluid – also known as the hypervolemia which is the reason of distention of the jugular vein. It is all about fluid retention in the intravascular.

The fourth symptom is known as the Central or peripheral cyanosis, pallor. It must be appreciated that one of the most important functions of the circulatory system is transportation. The transportation includes those of the important gases for respiration such as the oxygen and the transportation of carbon dioxide out of the system. Whenever there arises a hitch in transportation of these gases, it means that there would be increased accumulation of carbon dioxide gas in the body system while at the same time the oxygen would grow less in concentration in the system. Cyanosis comes as a result of less concentration of oxygen in the system and high accumulation of carbon dioxide in the body system a situation that makes the skin to have a bluish discoloration. This kind of discoloration is most notably seen in the beds of the finger nails and toe nails together with the skins of the tongue. It must be noted that blood that is rich in oxygen is normally red colored; a typical association with the blood while on the contrary a blood with lower levels of oxygen appears bluish or purple in color. This how cyanosis comes about to be recognized in those patients who are taken down with Congestive Heart Failure.

The Fifth symptom is that of the anorexia, weight loss, and nausea which are tied to the preceding fourth example of the symptoms of the disease. This is because whenever there is lack of proper supply of oxygen in the body system, there would be curtailment in the respiratory processes. The body system will thus not be in a position of making good use of the nutrients which have been taken in. This therefore results in the body trying to reject more supply of the nutrients which is normally manifested by feeling of nausea. This means that there will be lack of appetite in such kind of a person – a condition that is referred to as anorexia. this automatically would lead to loss of weight as we know that it is only through constant supply of food for the body that makes it have energy and at the same time repair and develop.

The sixth sign is that of oliguria that is a term that has been used mostly to refer to a situation where there is less urine formation and subsequent passing out of the same. We know that urine formation is a subset function of blood circulation. This means that whenever there is a hitch in the blood circulation, there would be a subsequent hitch in urine formation which results into oliguria. This is for sure a manifestation of multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) which means that the Congestive Heart Failure results to the malfunctioning of other organs such as the kidney; Kidney fails to form enough urine as a result of the poor supply of the blood.

The seventh symptom is the increased intensity of P 2 heart sound. The heart sound normally has two audible components, the aortic closure sound (A2) and the pulmonic closure sound (P2), which are normally split on inspiration and virtually single on expiration. Because of the body’s need of circulation the pulmonic closure will be rapid and this often associated with the increased pressure of the heart.

Causes of the Disease

There may be several causes of the disease such as the past heart attack of the coronary heart disease which can lead to scaring in the heart muscle and cause the Congestive Heart Failure. The second one is the high blood pressure; this is known to clog the blood vessels thus, making the heart to fail in its function of pumping the blood to various parts of the body. Thirdly, when the heart valves are affected by diseases, they result into heart failure as they will not function well as required. Fourthly, is the defective thyroid glands; Thyroid is the glad that releases the hormone thyroid (T3 and T4) that works in regulating the rate of heart beat. This test targets the level of this hormone in the blood and the fewer hormones or high hormonal level in the blood cause alteration in the heart rate.

The fifth cause is may be viral or other infections that come about to attack the heart – a condition that is normally called myocarditis. Lastly, there may be some congenital heart diseases that may persist with the growth of an individual and later develops into Congestive Heart Failure.

Pathophysiology of the Disease

These include the physiological/ physical indicators of the disease that can be depicted even without diagnostic procedures such as increased edema in the joints. There would also be a subsequent hitch in urine formation which results into oliguria.

Diagnosis of the Disease

Due to advancement of technology, several means of diagnosis have been developed that aids in managing the disease if detected well in advance before it catapults to high advanced levels. One of such technologies is what is termed as the echocardiography. It is a technique that uses sound waves to create the moving pictures of the heart. The importance of the picture is to show the size, the shape, and any deformity within the heart. Doppler ultrasound is a type of special echo produced by this technology that gives a picture on how well or bad the blood flows through the four heart chambers and the valves. It is also able to detect blood clots inside any part of the heart, fluid buildup in the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and problems with the aorta which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to other parts of the body (MedlinePlus, 2016).

Another important technology which is kind of similar to the first one is the use of electrocardiogram; a machine that has been specifically built to detect the efficiency of the heart’s functioning. A part from that, it helps the cardiologist to understand the intricate of how the heart works. The main important things this machine can show are: how fast the heart beats, whether the rhythm of the heart is steady or regular, and the strength and timing of the electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart. This is because it is designed in such a way that with every heart beat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of the heart to the bottom. As it travels, the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. The process repeats with each new heartbeat. And this is how it helps to detect if there is any hitch in the heart function.

Another technology by which Congestive Heart Failure can be diagnosed is through the administration of the chest X-rays. X rays simply mean electromagnetic waves that are channeled to the area of interest in the body. They use ionizing radiation to create pictures of the inside of your body. A chest x ray is designed to take pictures of the inside of the chest where the heart is located. The different tissues in the chest area absorb different amounts of radiation; thus a disease in the chest that changes how radiation is absorbed also will appear on a chest x ray and be detected (MedlinePlus, 2016). X- Rays could be likened to another diagnostic technology of the heart called the Cardiac MRI. The MRI means the Magnetic resonance imaging and it employs the use of radio waves, magnets, and computers to form pictures of the tissues of the heart. This technology does not use any ionizing radiation, thus rebuffs the fear that it can cause cancer to the patients that the procedure is done on. IT is therefore, a safe, noninvasive (no instrument needed to be inserted in the body as well as there is no surgery done to the patient in this procedure) test that creates detailed pictures of of the tissues of the heart and thus helps in detecting areas that are abnormal.

Another important diagnosis procedure is the cardiac catheterization which uses a long, a long, thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is placed into a blood vessel in the arm, groin (upper thigh), or neck and threaded to the heart of the patient. The function of this catheter is to give the doctor a view of the inside of the coronary (heart) arteries as he looks though the loop/ catheter. In this procedure, the doctor can check the pressure and blood flow within the heart chambers; he or she can also collect blood samples, and also applies the use of x rays to look at the coronary arteries if there is in abnormality that may result in the cause of any heart disease.

Another diagnostic technique used is what is termed as the nuclear heart scan which also shows the way the blood flows through out the heart. This procedure employs the use of a safe, radioactive substance called a tracer that is inserted or injected into bloodstream of a person who is examined through a vein. The tracer is caused to travel to the heart and as it releases energy that helps in detection of abnormalities is the heart through a reflection or emission to special cameras. The special cameras that are in the outside of the body detect the energy and use it to create pictures of heart giving any detail of what the heart looks like and if there is any abnormality as it shows where the heart muscle is healthy and where it may be damaged (MedlinePlus, 2016). An example of nuclear heart scan is the positron emission tomography (PET); a scan that shows the level of chemical activity within the heart and the areas surrounding the heart. This test can also be employed to help physicians to see whether enough blood is flowing well within the heart to different areas of the body. A PET scan can show blood flow problems that other tests might not detect.

The last diagnostic technology that can be used is that thyroid function tests. Thyroid is the glad that releases the hormone thyroid (T3 and T4) that works in regulating the rate of heart beat. This test targets the level of this hormone in the blood and the fewer hormones or high hormonal level in the blood cause alteration in the heart rate. The test includes imaging of the glad as well as blood tests to ascertain the levels of this hormone in it.

Prevention of the Disease

One of the important ways of preventing this disease is to ensure that one goes for frequent medical check-ups. Medical check-ups are important as they would give one his or her medical – health position. Secondly, there is the need to ensure that one remains physically active throughout his life. This is to ensure that the excess calories are burnt and the right weight and health is maintained.

Water is also an important component of diet. In fact water forms the basic component of diet by virtue of vital roles it plays in the diet though many are times people fail to discuss it as the diet. It provides form and structural support in the intracellular part of the cell. The main point is that it is the only medium for biochemical reaction. It also creates a means of transport and exchange of biochemical materials. According to Stone (2014), thirst is a sign for the body’s need for water. It is advisable for one that needs to lead a healthy life and keep Congestive Heart Failure at bay to also consider taking water.

Management of the Disease

Proper management of this disease revolves around lifestyle such as dietary measures and exercise. For energy to be in constant supply for the endurance exercises that patients are needed to undergo, the muscle cells must undergo anaerobic respiration that turns glucose to lactic acid. This often targets the stored energy in the muscle in form of glycogen. A process called glycolysis that provides two molecules of ATP per glucose. This means that proper dietary discipline must be observed by not only the Congestive Heart Failure patients, but everyone that needs good healthy life. A low­carbohydrate diet is often used in an effort to reduce body fat, however, most nutritionists consider carbohydrates to be one of the most important components of a diet, for both health and sports performance. The major role of carbohydrates is to provide energy especially for the endurance physical activities that the patients need to put themselves in on a daily basis.

Fat is also another major dietary requirement for the body, but it needs to be taken in low quantity or be avoided completely by the Congestive Heart Failure patients. Both monosaturated and polysaturated fats are important especially from the sources such as fish, vegetable oils, and avocados. Intake of saturated fat sources such as the bacon and butter together with the trans types of fats should be minimized or avoided if possible. The high fat foods should be avoided by all means by Congestive Heart Failure patients. Lastly it is advisable for everyone to be visiting the medical specialists for occasional medical check-ups in order to manage this disease well.

Prognosis of the Disease

There are imminent outcomes as far as the disease is concerned based on how best or how worst it is managed. For instance, if the disease is detected earlier enough and treatment and the management of the disease starts immediately it is detected, it is a fact that the disease cannot cause great harm and can be managed well and even treated till the patient comes to normal and healthy. It must be underscored her that this depends in the management of the disease and at the same time the treatment and adherence to doctor’s prescription. On the contrary this disease cannot allow one to leave for long if its diagnosis is done late and if the management issues to it are not adhered to by the patients. A patient that has been diagnosed late in the advancement of the disease has a very short time to live as compared to one that has been diagnosed earlier enough to enable the treatment and proper management to take place.

Source: Research on Congestive Heart Failure

Research Designs for Policy Analysis Paper

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Research Designs for Policy Analysis Paper

According to Dunn he describes policy analysis as an applied science that makes use of several modes of inquiry and arguments to talk about and change vital data that may be of use in political issues and solving policy issues. To a great extent, public policy has been used all over the world, like in Canada there are several European nations more so for young scholars it has been noted as useful. This paper shall focus on the descriptive research design in the field of policy analysis.

Student researching

Descriptive research is one that is able to make to use of elements more so in the same study. This form of design means the form of research design and information that will be used in a certain area. In this regard it is policy analysis. This research design will tell us about the statistics that aim to tell us the cause and impact. This form of research design will allow us to know the method that is vital in the completion of accurate analysis of the area in focus. This research area entails knowing what has to be applied to assess varied issues. The descriptive research can be quantitative or qualitative. It can entail acquiring quantitative details that can be calculated along with numerical data or it can help in the description of groups like gender or trends of connection with the help of technology. This research design helps in the acquisition of information that talk about events, and policies as well as describe data. Taking into consideration that people acquire a large size of information, descriptive research design are necessary as they help to limit and manage information for the case of policy makers. When there arises a case of narrative explanation of certain cases, the study makes use of a tool that helps in the management of trends that arise in analysis. These trends help the mind in understanding a qualitative study and the impact that arises.

Most of the research are found in the events and studies that are focused on getting to know the meaning and links that arise. This form of research are keen on getting to know the reason behind certain policies. This entails the use of survey methods that help in the collection of descriptive data. Studies of this form help in the prevailing state of the multimedia applied in government offices and those that arise due to collective work.

Policy analysis has been there for long and it has led to notable complexity in the modern society making the process for decision making tough in their need for information. Policy decisions integrate technical knowledge with complicated knowledge in social and political awareness. Policy analysis as we know it today has acquired an empirical alignment revolving around managerial aspects compared to the facilitation of democratic bodies. On the other hand, there are several methodological points of view. This has acquired a focus on intensive quantitative analysis, the role of separation of facts and values whose validity are autonomous. Hence, the limited model gets to be a policy science that is advanced and used in several issues. This arises due to issues related to economics and scientific processes.

Forms of Policy Analysis

There are a number of forms of policy analysis that are used. These include, the verification, description and detail of the issue. This is the most viable and significant issue of all taking into consideration the roles that in most times that are not clear or go against each other. An effective policy analysis will be issued and noted in the most effective way possible. The person has to assess the issue of the parties and their roles. Focusing on the issues in a manner that raises no ambiguity.

There is also the setting up of an evaluation method for one to compared and assess the specific options, viable analysis methods that have to be made. In this form of policy analysis it has to be considered that the price, benefit and efficiency are all component to this form among others. Economic benefits has to be taken into consideration in analysis of the policy. The impact of the policy will be useful or in reliance to the number the choices that are available. Political and other aspects are linked to each other when assessing the model to be used. A good size of the time the end user is focused on the policy analysis and will focus on the path that will be used.

Noting the other options available is the other form of policy analysis. For one to assess this, there is need to be effective. As noted, the policy analysis entails getting to one step in an effort to move to the next stage. It is necessary to have a clear awareness of the issue and how to handle it. Notable choice can be getting better outcome. The reliance on experiences from other people allows one to come up with a more extensive assessment. It is necessary to do away with the options that arise prior to limiting the number of choices available. Assessing other policies is another option which allows for packaging of methods into ways that meet the policy analysis. This is necessary as it allows for analysis of every option. More information is acquired in assessing the varied levels of impact. Political issues in meeting these goals are assessed to see if they meet the parties involved. This allows for assessment of the issue hence allowing for assessing the choices in depth. It allows also for reuse of data.


Source: Research Designs for Policy Analysis Paper

Statement of Research

At this tender age I would look at the environment and focus especially on how it created positive and negative results, it was quite intriguing how they could be changed. In order to get myself to study landscape architecture, I focused on environmental design which accorded me the opportunity to assess the planning trends that led to some of the outstanding results. I took architecture as a minor area. This accorded me the chance to focus on it as a foundation for an actual environmental design and allow me to acquire a balance between arts and design. I started to develop my interest in building using waste materials like paper.

College Students Researching

My interests developed and I began to take part in social activities related architecture, for instance I joined clubs that relate to architecture and design. This allowed me to engage closely with other like-minded people. My skills and experiences grew immensely. I also worked with the local community in several ways like designing a community garden and pathways among others. It is as it these projects that I was able to put to practice my skills. However, I felt that there is more to the area that I have not explored. This advanced my interest further in landscape architecture as an area I would like to explore.

I look to pursue a degree in Landscape engineering to enhance my skills and interests in art and design. It I look to use my skills in the future to the benefit of community. I look to using my skills to develop better playgrounds, parks and public facilities that are easily accessible and benefit both the young and old.

Source: Statement of Research