Night of the Long Knives | Assignment Writing Service

When the American Stock Market crashed in October 1929 Germany took a massive toll. Germany already had borrowed money from the United States Banks to pay for reparations from World War 1. Now those banks wanted their money back. Germany was in turmoil, many were forced to sell their own homes and unemployment was creeping over Germany.

Hitler saw this as a perfect opportunity to gain influence over the despaired people. He blamed the Jewish and Communist traitors for the German economic instability and promised to restructure the German military and provide new jobs for those who needed them. He won over the military with his promises of a better military and won over the people with his promise of a better structured government.

The German President Paul von Hindenberg chose Hitler as the new chancellor of Germany. Hitler had deceived the whole German Republic. For he was planning on overthrowing it despite all of his promises that got him to where he was now.

The Nazis set fire to the Reichstag, which was the parliament of Berlin and Hitler framed over 4,000 enemies for this act of treason. Hitler then convinced the President to sign the Enabling Act, which placed all power in Hitler’s hands and the Nazi regime. The Act was to protect the people and Germany. Hitler planned on doing the opposite. Hitler now had the legal ability to kill politically enemies, control propaganda. Hitler planned an attack on all the remaining powers of Germany to make his rise to the top eminent, it was called Operation Hummingbird. Also known as Night of the Long Knives.

During the Night of the Long Knives, 85 people were killed for their political stances. Many of them were in the SA which was the Nazi paramilitary organization, who angered Hitler in the past. Hitler was threatened by corruption even though he had all the power of Nazi Germany. The Night of the Long Knives also gained Hitler control of the army.

On June 29th, 1934, Hitler’s evil scheme was put into effect. Hitler’s personal bodyguard the SS, were given very specific orders to sneak up on the SA leaders and generals, Hitler’s opposition, who were staying at a hotel called the Bad Weisse. The SS were to kidnap the SA leaders and bring them to the Nazi Headquarters where they were to be killed. The SS took the SA by surprise and successful threw the unsuspecting leaders into vehicles and drove off to the Nazi Headquarters. Once at Headquarters Hitler commanded the SS to mow them down with guns and that is what they did.

Many people questioned Hitler’s actions and were astounded by such cruelty. The army on the other hand praised Hitler for his heroism and the President of Germany even sent a telegram recognizing this great deed that Hitler had done. Hitler exclaimed to the German people that he did not commit these horrible actions for himself, he instead told the people that it was for them, and for the good of Germany. Hitler made it seem like he himself was doing a heroic action that no one else would ever do, and that it was completely necessary. Hitler always had a disagreement with the SA leaders, especially SA leader Ernest Rohm, who thought that the SA was a vital part of the Nazi Party. Added to Hitler’s dislike there many leaders in the SS who had dislikes for Rohm and just made the Night of the Long Knives more justifiable. Many of the SS leaders convinced Hitler that Rohm was planning a second revolution against Hitler. Hitler of course did not want to take any chances at having even the slightest uprising against him. Hitler even gave Rohm the option of shooting himself, but Rohm was too proud of what he did to do that and the SS did the deed instead.

The final event that rose Hitler to power was the death of German President Hindenberg. Hitler now, with the German army and his SS, was able to fuse the role as chancellor with the role as President and became the dictator of Germany with no one to stop him.

The leader of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, and not only that but he was also head of the police force, any act of opposition against the Nazi’s would be considered treason, and there didn’t even need to be evidence of it. There was never investigations of any crimes by the Nazi Party which quickly converted Germany to become Nazified because most were afraid for their own lives if they did not concur with Hitler’s ways.

Hitler then came up with the idea of concentration camps for all of his opposition, Jews, Communists and all others for who he considered to be a nuisance to Nazi Germany. The people in these camps faced harsh conditions with little food, and very hard abuse from the SS, who were running the camps.

The Night of the Long was the spark that set off the complete Nazification of Germany. The SS tore apart the fabric of the society that was Germany. The churches were torn apart, priests arrested, many were immediately placed in concentration camps. Hitler set up a Nazi oriented church system where kids would go Nazi Youth groups. Boys were taught to accept Nazi rule and competed in physical challenges to embrace the glory of being a Nazi. Women were taught to do chores while men were working.

In 1933 Jews were exiled from Nazi Germany. They were disbanded from society, leaving them jobless. Hitler implemented the Nuremburg laws in 1935 which took away Jewish citizenship and Jews were simply persecuted by the Nazis, they robbed thousands of Jewish shops tens of thousands were arrested without cause.

In the big picture of things the people of Germany were able to go on with their lives without much notice of change. The only ones who really had anything to worry about was the Nazi German opposition, who sadly either was killed or put into concentration camps. Although there would be spurs of Nazis who would abuse their powers and kill innocents of wrongdoing. Such as the Night of the Long Knives but in the end there was nothing that the Germans could do. Most of them felt better about Germany as a country because Hitler seemed to really care about rebuilding Germany and making it better, reestablishing glory to it especially after the embarrassment of the Treaty of Versailles, which Germany was still paying reparations for. Of course Hitler was only doing these things because he wanted to show is power, and to become a world dictator, but it was not too bad for the Germans who were living there as long as they kept their noses down.

The Night of the Long Knives was one of Hitler’s greatest accomplishments and was a huge establishment of a new form of Government. Hitler was established the ruler of the German people and there was no one and nothing that could take away the power he had, he was officially and legally above the law. Despite all of the horrors that Hitler had committed hardly anyone would turn their back on him, he was too powerful to argue with, despite some who did argue, who were immediately arrested or put into concentration camps for their treason. The killing of Rohm and the 400 followers of his was the start and the clear message of what life would be like for the Nazi German people. This is the way Hitler would convert Germany into the Nazi Germany dictatorship that he wanted to have complete and utter control over.

Hitler’s power and influence eventually got the best of him when he was at war with the Americans and the Soviet Union and it came to the point where he committed suicide by cyanide. Hitler is now one of the most renown dictators in the history of the world. He conquered the odds, lied, cheated, committed all evils possible to get to where he wanted to be. He was a complete success and millions of lives were taken by his word, he killed 400 men in the Knight of the Long Knives, and that was just the beginning. It led to the Nuremberg trials which Jews were killed for their treason to their country despite their innocence. Concentration camps were implemented and Germany became Anti-Jew, Anti-Communist, and they were executed and taken away from public office and jobs were taken. Hitler eliminated the SA at all costs, eliminated all possible opposition and made the people of Germany fear him. With fear Hitler was able to conquer Germany and make himself the one and only ruler of Germany. There was nothing that could stop him, nobody that could stop, he started out with hardly anything and rose to the top. With the German President’s death, it was imminent that he would use his power as Chancellor, and with all of the praise the President have given him, he was able to convince the German people, with of course the help of the German army, who pledged their loyalty to him, to accept him as their leader and dictator. The Germans were afraid and would not go against him and Hitler successfully became the complete dictator of Germany.

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Because I Could Not Stop for Death Essay | Assignment Writing Service

Death is usually unwelcomed throughout literature, but in this poem, Death is personified as a patient gentlemen. Death is a polite man who surprises the speaker with his visit. The lines “Because I could not stop for Death / He kindly stopped for me; (1-2)” describes the relationship between the two characters as very intimate. Because the speaker could not stop for death, she did not have the choice to choose when she wanted to die. This line reveals the obvious; humans do not have the option to choose when they want to die. The speaker lives a busy life, as she is unable to stop for Death, so instead, Death arrives to her home to take the speaker out for a carriage ride. But, the speaker and Death are accompanied by Immortality during the carriage ride. Death is personified throughout the poem as a metaphor to convey what death is truly like. The portrayal of death in this poem is comforting and almost acts like a companion. Death is usually portrayed in a negative way, but in Dickinson’s poem, Death is introduced as a comforting and polite man. By portraying Death as a positive character, Dickinson is straying from the norms of literature. She is depicting death as a part of life, which is ironic because death is the ending of life. Death can be grim and frightening, but Dickinson is sweetening death by portraying death as a kind and gentle man.

Death drives the carriage slowly, maybe in an act of consideration. The carriage acts as a metaphor for the vessel that will lead the speaker to death. The voyage is pleasant, and Dickinson illustrates the road to eternity as a pleasant trip. Death “slowly drove” the carriage, which signifies the death described in the poem as a slow death. The speaker states “The carriage held but just ourselves / And Immortality (3-4),” and by saying “ourselves,” Dickinson magnifies the relationship between the speaker and Death. But the complicated part of the line is Dickinson’s use of the word “immortality.” The speaker is riding in the carriage with Death, so the reader would assume that Dickinson meant to write “mortality.” The use of “immortality” in the line may hint that the speaker does not think of death as the end of life, but instead the road to eternity, which is again hinted later on in the last line of the poem.

The character Death was not in a hurry, which is revealed when the speaker says, “We slowly drove, he knew no haste (5).” This may again hint that the death described in the poem is not a quick one. Dickinson shifts from “we” to “he” in line five. The use of “we” in the line may hint that the speaker believes she may have some control over the speed of the carriage, but the switch to “he” reminds the reader that Death has full control over the pace. The character Death is determining the speed of the speakers death since the pace of the carriage ride is symbolizing the pace of the speakers death. It can be inferred that the speaker is not necessarily afraid of death; the slow pace of the carriage creates a suspenseful wondering in the poem. The speaker states she “had put away her labor, and her leisure too / For his civility (7-8).” The speaker gave up her leisure and joy because of the politeness and comfort of Death. It can also be interpreted that the speaker gave up her leisure in exchange for Death’s consideration and politeness. The speaker has given up her joy for Death, and the speaker seems to have become almost infatuated with him.

Death and the speaker pass by a school where children are playing, and the youth of the children contradicts death. Death is associated with coldness, and the sunset described in the poem describes the coldness of death. As the sun sets, the warmth of the sun is gone, thus symbolizing the coldness of death. The sunset symbolizes the end of the day, and also the end of life. But the passing of the school children is also an ordinary act, and this may portray death as something ordinary and a part of life. The repetition of “we passed” in lines eleven and twelve, also known as an anaphora, imitated the slow pace of the carriage. Instead of being an observer, the speaker can be apart of the journey due to the slow paced progression of the journey.

The speaker and Death now arrive at a house. But the house is not just an ordinary house, it is the burial spot for the speaker. Death has lead the speaker to a house that is just a small rise in the ground and is barely visible. The house is underground and is a metaphor for a grave. Instead of feeling uneasy after arriving at her grave, the speaker is calm and at ease as the speaker feels comfortable with Death. The speaker and Death “paused before a house, (13)” which is the second pause in the poem, the first being when Death stopped for the speaker. This can help conclude that the second pause is the end of the journey. Instead of blatantly telling the reader that the speaker arrived to her grave, Dickinson describes the speakers grave as a home, something that is very comforting and freedom.

The last stanza of the poem reveals that this journey happened centuries ago. The point of view of the poem is given through a flashback. Thus, the speaker has been dead throughout the poem. The speaker says the memory “Feels shorter than the day (18),” which means the memory is still vivid. The horses in the last two lines symbolize the speaker’s journey to death, and also her journey into eternity. The horses’ heads act as an extension of the carriage. The heads of the horses are narrow and angled, almost like an arrow that is piercing through the boundary that is blocking life from death.

Dickinson illustrates death as something not far away from the ordinary. The speaker is not afraid of death and accepts it as a part of life. Through the use of poetic devices such as personification and metaphors, the author is able to convey the acceptance of death in the poem. Death is personified as a kind and gentle man. Every image in the poem ties back to the main idea; they are all images of death. The poem focuses on the life that is being left behind of the speaker and seeks to experience death that is to come. Dickinson uses the images of mortality, immortality, and eternity in order to illustrate death.

 

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Film Review of To Kill a Mockingbird | Assignment Writing Service

Morals are the principles of knowing the distinction between what is good and what is evil, what is right and wrong. Morals are the ability to have compassion and sympathy for someone else and their circumstances within their life and understand that it’s a necessity. Dalai Lama said it best when he states, “Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive.” In the film, To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee’s main character, lawyer Atticus Finch, shows morality by exhibiting it through his overwhelming amount of compassion and sympathy throughout the film. However, he instills it most into his children.

Its within the wisdom of Mr. Finch’s ability to have patients and compassion to teach his own daughter, Scout, that she too must feel sympathy for those less fortunate and “you will never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view,” (Lee, 1960). It’s during this scene in which Scout finds solace upon the front porch swing after getting scolded at dinner that Atticus tries to get her to understand that you will never understand what someone else is going through unless you place yours into their position. Atticus states, “Until you climb into his skin and walk around in it,” (Lee, 1960), which is a quote that we have modified in today’s society but is understood with the same comprehension. With the high-key lighting within the scene that provide minimum shadows upon Atticus and Scout, to the normal focus of the lens that is angled up from the view of the porch floor, you feel like you part of the conversation in which she is not just learning how to have morals, but also learning how to compromise, not with just school but with life in general. According to Rachel Watson, “The porch functions as a location with which viewer’s associate safety, solutions borne from compromise and the moral lesson of sympathetic point of view.”

Ethics is the moral principles that govern a person’s behavior. Thomas A. Edison stated, “Non-violence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages.” I believe this quote fits the scene in which Atticus is guarding over Tom Robinson, his Africa-American client who is waiting for his trial based on the accusation of raping a white woman, when a lynch mob approaches. Atticus believes it’s his ethical duty to do what is in the best interest of his client, and that means protecting him against the lynch mob. He is peacefully guarding Robinson when his kids visit spy him through the pushes, then he is in a verbal confrontation with the lynch mob when his children can’t see him and with worry of “I can’t see Atticus,” flees into the mob until they reach their father. It’s during this time frame that Scout talks about Mr. Cunningham’s lack of social-economic stature that the lynch mob comes to their own moral and ethical understanding that they won’t injure Tom Robbins due to the presence of the children.

With the starting of the scene in a distance view from the point-of-view from the children hiding in the bushes along the road, with only a high-key light shining upon Atticus, it shows him seated and reading, with the lamp which lights the porch of the jail. It’s the roar of the cars of the lynch mob that lurk from the shadows of the streets into the light, which is projected from the streetlamp above the jail, to the lamp on the porch shining upon the guns in which they carry and insist on seeing Robinson. The director uses the point-of-view of both Atticus and the lynch mob instead of panning to assist the views with the idea that they are part of the scene, to include having a head-on angle framing from the view of the mob that shows shoulders of the lynch mob. It’s the camera tracking when the children run through the lynch mob that assists the audience with the ability of being in the position of the children, pondering what is going on and why the confrontation. It’s the natural lighting of the moon that places the cars into view from down the road to the lamp above the jail that provides the high-key lighting elements that connects us to each main character.

The elements of the mise-en-scene within ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ provide the capture of how society was seen in the 1930’s. It’s the old-fashioned black-and-white film that doesn’t have much lighting that showcases the vulnerability of Scout’s building of moral ethics to Atticus’ high ethical values that come across with his ability to protect his client while facing a lynch mob. It’s the costumes of each character identifying them to the economic standing within society: Atticus’ business suit that shows that he is organized to the lynch mobs overalls, t-shirts and jeans (farmer’s clothes), to Scout’s dresses that are slightly covered in dirt because of her tomboy ways. It’s the significance of the porch providing comfort to Scout when she is swinging on the porch seat to the porch outside of the jail that provides security to Atticus and Tom Robinson when the lynch mob approaches. The zoom of the camera lens to show the reactions of Scout’s understand of compromise to Walter’s reaction to Scout’s acknowledgment when he is in the lynch mob, and particularly, divulging the information of him dropping of goods to her house. It’s these techniques of the movie that was made in 1962 that didn’t subtract from the messages that were being conveyed throughout an amazing film about morals and ethics being built within a society that was still struggling with prejudice and injustice

 

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Insights about Dumb ways to die in Melbourne Australia | Assignment Writing Service

The word ‘dumb” actually entail that people die as a result of silly or unavoidable acts which one performs . When this public campaign was launched, it had four primary objectives which it was intended to achieve. The four main objectives include:

  • Enhance public awareness and engagement when it comes to rail safety (there wasn’t enough data to provide a benchmark before the launch of the campaign. The campaign was meant to establish measurable goals when it comes to awareness & engagement)
  • The campaign also sort to create PR, buzz and sharing around messages/information relating rail safety. Despite the fact that the exact Key Performance Indicator (kpi) was not be established, there was some level of expectation that this campaign create conversation around rail safety (Ward, 2015).
  • The campaign also intended to invite a commitment to safety (the founders drew a line in the sand and sought to obtain 10,000 local pledges on its website) in a one year period
  • The last objective of the campaign was to have a decline with regards to near misses and accidents at level crossings and station platforms within one year by 10 %.

The main target of this public campaign is all people from different backgrounds, male and female and rich or poor. Train accidents do not choose who to hit or leave, when it strikes, it hits everyone regardless of their societal standing or class. It is based on this fact that the ad targets everyone. To ensure that this public campaign reaches a wider audience, the organizers of the event have ensured that they become innovative to ensure they attract the attention of the public. Besides this, the organizers have ensured that they use different forms of communication platform. According to Metro Trains, since its launch, the campaign has contributed to over 30% reduction in “near-miss” accidents, from 13.3 near-misses per million kilometers in November 2011 – January 2012, to 9.2 near-misses per million kilometers in November 2012 – January 2013.

Implementation

The success of any public campaign is pegged on how well its message is crafted, the channel used to pass the message and how the message is presented to the public (Andreasen, 2014, p. 109). The implementation of dumb ways to die in Melbourne Australia was rather unique and different. The founders came up with several techniques to ensure that the message of the campaign is well understood. Some of the techniques used included: the use of games. In 2013, Metro released a “Dumb Ways to Die” game as an app for iOS devices.

The game, invites players to shun dangerous activities engaged in by the different characters featured throughout the campaign. In the app, players can also pledge to “not to carry out dumb activities within the train stations. The activities entails things like getting toast out with a fork and poking a stick at a grizzly bear .

The aims of the game is to earn more points through avoiding “dying” in any of the activities. Lives are lost through “dying” in any of the activities. Player has three chances to hinder the characters from dying. The other technique used involved the use of video and songs. The videos and songs were meant to sensitize the public about not doing dumb things within the train stations. The video contained characters who got killed by trains as a result of unsafe behavior. The video was viewed 2.4 million times 2 days after it was released and 4.5 million times after three days. Within fourteen days, the video was viewed 30 million times. In August 2017, the video received more than 150 million viewers (Ward, 2015).

Owing the effectiveness and creativity of this campaign, the campaign won 7 Webby Awards in 2013 including the Best Animation Film & Video and Best Public Service & Activism.

With regards to the 4ps of dumb ways tо die in Melbourne Australia, the product/service being offered here is about educating members of the public about ensuring their safety while in the train station. This campaign/service is presented in various ways through video games, songs and short clips all of which are meant to ensure that the public do not engage in behaviors that endangers their lives while at the train station (Rice, & Atkin, 2013). With regards to price, members of the public are not charged any fee instead these services are presented to them free of charge. The founders of the campaign are the one who incur charges in terms of developing the video games apps. Members of the public can access this video games by downloading them.

When it comes to the aspect of promotion, the founders have used several channels to ensure that their message reaches majority of the population. Some of the ways in which the promotion has been carried out include, the use of animated videos and which are later on uploaded on YouTube. Other platforms which have been used involve the use of social media networks and the use of TV. With regards to place, the campaign are mostly situated within the train station. Short clips are played within the train station so as to encourage people not to engage in risky behaviors.

The communication strategies/tactics used involve the use of animated videos, video games and songs. The animated videos and games are meant to inform the public about how certain dangerous behaviors can endanger their lives hence the need for them to be safe. The communication plan entails targeting people who use train services (Narasimha, 2010). The communication entails educating the public on desisting from engaging in dangerous behaviors. Moreover, the communication is mostly situated within the train station and can be downloaded from the app store in terms of video games. The campaign was meant to be an ongoing thing until there will be no cases of train accidents as a result of dangerous behaviors. The materials used in the campaign involve the use of animated videos and songs and whose main concept was to show people how dangerous behaviors may endanger ones life.

Sourced From:

Best Assignment Writing Service, (2017) Insights about Dumb ways to die in Melbourne Australia | Assignment Writing Service. Retrieved from https://assignmentwritingservice.net/best

All Essay Planet (2017) Insights about Dumb ways to die in Melbourne Australia | All Essay Planet. Retrieved from https://allessayplanet.com

 

 

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Summary of Is Google Making Us Stupid by Nicholas Carr | Assignment Writing Service

The author goes on to provide a thorough researched account of how text on the web is supposed to make the browsing experience fast and profitable. Carr described how the web is structured to make money for certain people how critical thinking skills and attention spans are ignored in the process. He finishes his argument by describing what people are losing in the shift towards the web as our main source of information. The author talks about the new idea of considering the brain as a computer feels bad for the loss of deep reading and intellectual stimulation it offers for ones brains. Lastly, the authors quotes the 2001: A space Odyssey scene which he used to open the article. He identifies with the computer within the scene instead of the robotic human and appears to imply that the web will cause us to become more machine like instead of machines.

This paper will analyze Carr’s argument that the computer/internet is affecting our capacity to make our own associations and develop our own ideas.

I agree with the authors remarks that the internet is deeply impacting ones capacity to read and stimulate ones thinking capacity and such a scenario would greatly impact everyone. In his article, Carr explained how the internet impacted him. He pointed out that after he began using the internet, he was no longer able to read long texts of information without getting distracted and he is no longer firmly linked to what he was reading (Carr, 2015, p313). Carr is not the only person who has noticed this changes, other researchers and scholars share similar concerns. Bruce Friedman, a blogger who Carr used as an example pointed out that blog post which are over three pages is too much to absorb and which is what Carr and other researchers have experienced (p316). The reason for this according to Carr is that people are spending a lot of time the internet. Carr argued that spending a lot of time on the internet and switching from one website to another has changed the way he reads information (Carr, 2015, p316). He went on to note that he has stopped thinking the way he used to think. He went on to add that immersing himself in a lengthy article initially used to be very easy. His mind would get caught up in the narrative, and he would spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose. However, since he began using the internet, he finds it harder to read lengthy books. His concentration usually begins to drift after reading two or three pages. This sentiments by the author are not unique to him since it is what other people are going through.

I fully support Carr sentiments we, as a culture, read a lot more owing to the internet, however, he lamented that one’s capacity to understand text, to make informed rich mental connections that is created when one reads deeply without getting distracted, remains largely disengaged. Carr highlighted a quote from an essay by the playwright Richard Foreman: he comes from a tradition of Western culture whereby the ideal was the complex, dense, and ‘cathedral-like’ framework of the very educated and articulate man/woman that carried inside themselves a personally developed and distinct form of the whole heritage of the West. But currently, all that we see within us (myself included) there placement of sophisticated inner density with a newer type of self-evolving under the pressure of overload of information and internet of the ‘immediate availability.

Our reliance on the web has a dark side. An increasing body of scientific research have pointed out that the web, with its constant distractions and interruptions, is changing human beings to scattered and superficial thinkers. According to Nobel Prize-winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel, the similar thread in such disabilities is the division of our attention. He went on to point out that the richness of ones thoughts, memory and personalities hinges on once capacity to focus the brain and sustain concentration (Carr, 2010). It is only when one pays attention to a newer pieces of information is when one is able to relate to it “meaningfully and systematically with information already well established in memory. These associations are crucial when it comes to mastering complex ideas and critical thinking.

When we are at all times distracted and interrupted, as we tend to be when starring at the screens of the computers and mobile phones, the brains tends to become unable to form the firm & expansive neural links which gives uniqueness and depth to ones thinking. Ones thoughts tend to become disorganized/incoherent, hence ones memories become very weak. This scenario conforms to the words of the Roman philosopher Seneca who pointed out 2,000 years ago that to be everywhere is to be nowhere (Carr, 2010).

The deep dependence on the internet is also impacting negatively on the performance of students in their school work. In a single research experiment that was carried out at a US university, half a class of students were allowed to use internet-connected laptops during their lectures, while the other half were asked to shut down their computers . At the end of this experiment, it was established that the students who were allowed to use internet-connected laptops during their lectures performed much worse on a subsequent test (Carr, 2010). The primary reason for this was that they were unable to recall what was taught in class since their attention/concertation levels was distracted. Initial experiments showed that as the number of links in an online document increases, one’s reading comprehension tends to decline, and as more forms of information are put on a screen, one tend to less of what we see.

The above cases are a clear indication that though the internet is good, it has a dark side to it. This is so it tends to impact negatively on ones thinking capacity, concentration levels and retention of information. If this trend goes on, then we as humans are putting ourselves at greater risks of not been able to fully realize and utilize the power of our brains, i.e. thinking capacity. By depending on the web, it is like we have delegated the role of thinking to the computers/web. Such a scenario is very dangerous since it makes us to become unable to think even when it comes to making simple decisions.

With this regard, it like the web has become a drug which we have to use in order for us to function properly. Carr gives credit to the web for making research which initially used to take days available in a matter of minutes (Carr, 2010). But what one gets comes at a huge cost. Carr is of the opinion that concertation and deeper contemplation is what people are giving up. Moreover, one might be good at multitasking, but creativity would be affected significantly. Since creativity is as a result of critical thinking, the heavy reliance on the web tends to negatively impact ones deeper thinking hence hindering them from becoming creative. What we as humans are sacrificing in our surfing and searching is our capability to engage in the quieter, attentive modes of thoughts which underpins contemplation, deliberation and self-analysis (Carr, 2010). The internet never motivates us to slow down. It only keeps us in a state of continuous mental locomotion. The growth/expansion of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter that pumps out streams of brief messages, have just exacerbated the issue.

There is nothing wrong with absorbing too much information faster and in bits and pieces. We as humans have at all times skimmed newspapers more than we have read them, and we continuously run our eyes over journals and magazines so as to obtain the gist of a piece of writing and make decisions as to whether they qualify for further/extensive reading. The capability to scan and browse is as crucial as the ability to read deeply and think attentively. What is worrying and disturbing is that skimming has grown to become our dominant form of thought (Carr, 2010). Once a means to an end, a way of identifying information for future research, it’s becoming an end in itself — our liked form of both learning and evaluation. Dazzled by the reassures of web, human beings have been blinded to the damage that we are doing to our won intellectual lives and even our cultures.

Conclusion

The discovery of the internet has brought with it numerous benefits. However, there has been a growing concern that the web is adversely impacting our capacity to think critically and which in one way or the other is making us to become “stupid” or unable to think independently.

Works Cited

UK Assignment Writing Service, (2017) Summary of Is Google Making Us Stupid by Nicholas Carr | Assignment Writing Service. Retrieved from https://assignmentwritingservice.net/uk

Carr Nicholas, “Is Google Making Us Stupid”. They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. With readings. 2015 313-329, print

Carr, Nicholas. How

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The Cause Political And Social Issues Which Faced Americans By 1940-1960’S | Assignment Writing Service

Their movement grew: more and more demonstrators went back to that lunch counter daily, and tens of thousands blocked isolated hotels and shops within the upper South. The protesters drew the country’s attention to the injustice, brutality and fickleness which characterized Jim Crow. The national government kept away from the civil rights struggle until 1964, when President Johnson tabled Civil Rights Act via Congress which was against discrimination within public places, authorized the Justice Department to sue states which discriminated against women and minority groups and promised equal opportunities within the workplace to everyone. The next year, the Voting Rights Act scrapped away poll taxes, literacy requirement and other tools which the southern whites had historically used to keep blacks from voting (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016).

However, these laws failed to solve the issues which the African Americans were facing. The law failed to bring to an end racism or poverty and they didn’t enhance the living conditions many black urban neighborhoods. Majority of the leaders of the black started to rethink their aims, and a section of them embraced a more militant idea of separatism and self-defense.

Towards the end of the decade, more Americans protested against the war in Vietnam. Many people in America held the belief that America had no reason to get involved in a war which was very far away from home (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016). Female activists demanded additional rights for the women and whose role within society started to change. The birth control pill and other contraceptives were made available and which made it possible for women to plan their careers and have babies when they were ready.

The 1960s impacted greatly US politics after the assassination of famous leaders. John F. Kennedy, who was the 1st Catholic President in American history and who was assassinated in Dallas in 1963. When Kennedy was assassinated in nineteen sixty-three, majority of the people in America held the belief that all their hopes died, too. This was more so true among the young people, and members and supporters of minority communities. When his brother Robert ran for presidency in 1968 he too got assassinated in California. The two murders led to increased riots in cities across USA (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016). The unrest and violence impacted greatly many young Americans. The effect seemed especially worse because of the time in which they had grown up. A few months before, civil rights leader Martin Luther King, who played a crucial role for African Americans than any other person before him, was also killed in Memphis, Tennessee.

As time went on, the civil rights movement started to fragment. The legal and political gains never translated to immediate economic and social advances. Black neighborhoods were still plagued by crime and drug addiction, fatherless homes, and intense frustration and alienation. Five days after the enactment of the Voting Rights Act, Watts, a black neighborhood in Los Angeles, witnessed chaos, looting, arson, and violence (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016). In the coming three years, over 300 race riots occurred within the inner-city societies in USA. For most urban blacks who lived outside South, the mainstream civil rights movement brought minimal tangible improvement in their lives. Majority of the African Americans lived not in the rural South but within the inner-city neighborhoods across America, in major cities like New York, Philadelphia, Detroit Chicago, and Los Angeles (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016). Blacks who lived in urban ghettos underwent chronic poverty, joblessness, and police brutality.

President Dwight Eisenhower’s warning against overspending

On Jan, 1961, President Dwight Eisenhower gave an address to the nations regarding the dire warning about what he defined as a threat to democratic government. He called it the military-industrial complex, a formidable union of defense contractors and the armed forces (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016). Eisenhower was concerned regarding the expenses of an arms race with the Soviet Union, and the resources it might take away from other areas — like building hospitals and schools. Eisenhower arguments against overspending when it comes to military was well captured when he said that, for each gun made, each warship launched, each rocket fired signifies, in the final analysis, is a theft from people who are hungry, those who are out there in the cold and do not have clothes.

He went on to note that military overspending involves spending on the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its kids. He added that the nation is paying for a single fighter plane with a half million bushels of wheat. The country is paying for a single destroyer with new houses which might have provided shelter to over 8,000 people. He concluded by pointing out that this is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Within the cloud of risking war, it’s humanity hanging from a cross of iron (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016).

From the above sentiments by President Dwight Eisenhower, he seemed to be against the heavy spending channeled towards military upgrading at the expense of other people. The heavy spending on upgrading military equipments has resulted to heavy suffering on the part of other people in terms of people are sleeping hungry, sleeping out on the cold and impacting negatively on other sectors of the economy (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016). The heavy spending on upgrading military equipments means that certain sectors of the economy receive less financial aid hence they are prone to performing poorly. In his concluding remarks, President Dwight Eisenhower pointed there needs to be another way which does not impact the wellbeing of the common man and the economy of the nation and also ensures that the nation’s military department has sufficient resources to deal with any threat to the nation.

President Dwight Eisenhower is advocating for a balance when it comes to balancing military spending and taking into consideration the needs of the public. He advocates for there to be no situation whereby the public suffers due to heavy spending directed on the military (Gilmore, Glenda and Sugrue, 2016).

John F. Kennedy’s desire to “pay any price

John F. Kennedy’s inaugural speech was not only short, but also broadly considered as among the most powerful. He emphasized the need for peace, like calling for Soviet cooperation to end the threat of war and nuclear destruction, while also underscoring America’s desire to lead and work from a position of strength. His remarks on desire to pay any price entailed: The importance of individual and regional freedom as the primary tenets of democracy. He likened the period’s fights for civil rights to free oppressed nations overseas and to rid the globe of the risk of nuclear war to the original USA revolution. Kennedy’s remarks on pay any price also entailed lifting people out of poverty and freeing them from colonial or tyrannical oppression. These primary themes are captured in the famous phrase “trumpet summons us again … struggle against the common enemies of human: tyranny, poverty, illnesses and war itself.”

His remarks on pay any price also entailed the call to every American to rise up to greatness and realize their greatest potential, both at a personal and national level. He stated clearly that, “The torch has been handed over to the next generation of Americans” to fight for the growth of democratic freedom and prosperity globally, and to defeat any efforts by others to erode human/civil rights globally.

President Lyndon B. Johnson and his Great Society speech.

Johnson managed to convince Congress to develop and implement broad range of programs after the assassination of Kennedy. Having been brought up from a poor background, the president knew initially what poverty entails, and he declared a war on poverty early in 1964 via the Economic Opportunity Act (Milkis, 2005). The act gave cash for the Job Corps that secured jobs for inner city youths; created the Head Start program, to give disadvantaged preschoolers an early chance in education; and create domestic prototype of the Peace Corps also called VISTA, or Volunteers in Service to USA.

Johnson’s Great Society also handled the issue of racial injustice. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 sought to bring to an end segregation within public accommodations, gave permission the attorney general to file suits to desegregate schools, and establish the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to probe complaints of about discrimination in the workplace.

The Great Society that Johnson envisioned was a nation whereby poverty, disease, and racial injustice would be done away with via government reforms (Milkis, 2005). Unfortunately, Johnson’s domestic initiatives fell victim to widening crisis in Vietnam that drained valuable resources and eliminated Johnson’s public support.

Works Cited

US Assignment Writing Service, (2017) The Cause Political And Social Issues Which Faced Americans By 1940-1960’S| Assignment Writing Service. Retrieved from https://assignmentwritingservice.net/us/

Gilmore, Glenda E, and Thomas J. Sugrue. These United States: A Nation in the Making, 1945 to the Present. , 2016. Print.

Milkis, Sidney M. The Great Society and the High Tide of Liberalism. Amherst, Mass. [u.a.: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 2005. Print

Source: The Cause Political And Social Issues Which Faced Americans By 1940-1960’S | Assignment Writing Service

Terrorism And Society | Assignment Writing Service

Part A: Q 1

Europe, America, Africa and certain nations globally are shaking with intensified conflict between traditional populations and people whose families emigrated from overseas. France and Britain, two nations with a long history of tolerance and stability, have been the hardest hit (Michaelsen, 2005, p, 322). Violent Islamic militants have emerged in the two nations and built followings that risk to upset national life. It’s no wonder that during the Golden Age of colonialism — from around the mid-19th to mid-20th centuries — France and Britain were the most active conquerors. Majority the wealth obtained by Britain and France were squeezed from the sweat of colonized people from Polynesia to Senegal. Britain prospered via subduing and exploiting the inhabitants in a global empire (National Academies Press, 2002). If these and other European super powers never colonized other nations around the world and implanted the seeds of hatred, those seeds wouldn’t have flowered into the poisonous weeds that are now spreading within Europe.

For a long time the colonial enterprise was lavishly profitable. Imperial powers in Europe extracted vast amounts of wealth from weak countries. When the adventure finally ended — Britain gave up India in 1947, France lost Vietnam in 1954 and Algeria in 1962 — all still seemed well. It was assumed that sins of the past would be forgotten, and that countries that committed them would move painlessly into a new era. One legacy of empire, however, was the more or less free admission of former colonial subjects to the motherland. This immigration greatly enriched both French and British societies. It also brought the seeds of future strife. Cultural conflicts set in motion by colonialism have spiraled into anger and violence (Rasler, & Thompson, 2009, p, 31).

The two brothers that killed the cartoonists and editors at the French magazine Charlie Hebdo were of Algerian descent. So was the gunman that murdered seven people in the Toulouse area some few years ago. All were born in France to parents that lived through the savage French-Algerian War. Without this war, or without France colonizing Algeria, it might have been unlikely that any of them might have find their way to France (Kinzer, 2015).

In Britain, the 11 men were arrested in 2014 as they planned suicide bombings. It was established that this men were from Pakistan- which Britain colonized as part of India. The hatemongering British cleric Anjem Choudary, whose latest fury was blessing the previous atonement of a Jordanian pilot in Syria, is also of Pakistani descent (Kinzer, 2015). Britain’s other leading Islamic radical, Abu Hamza, who was taken to US and sentenced to life in prison for terrorism s, was born in Egypt, which Britain dominated for over 70 years.

Cast adrift in unfamiliar and at times hostile communities, a section of these immigrants or their kids have grown to become infuriated over what they view as Europe’s hypocrisy. They link this hypocrisy to European previous claims that their colonial invasion and occupation were meant principally to civilize the people they oppressed (Kinzer, 2015). If France, Britain, and other European nations had declined the urge to go and colonize other nations — if they had not sent armies to regions such as Syria, Iraq, India, or North Africa — they wouldn’t be facing the terror which is afflicting them currently.

Part B: Q 1

Bombs, guns and knives have traditionally been the most preferred weapons used by terrorists (Cohen, 2005, p, 26). However, the latest type of deadly mass violence has weaponized something far more humdrum: vehicles. Six of the previous nine multiple-casualty terrorist attacks within Western Europe were as a result of trucks, cars or SUVs which were driven into public crowds, at times over long stretches before the attackers are brought to a stop. The violence at times continued when attackers flee their cars and inflict further damage within the surrounding regions. As the following timeline shows, terrorism which started with car contact have been deadly in the past few months.

  • March 22nd, 2017, London, England — An SUV was rammed into crowds in London near Parliament. 4 people were murdered by the car,
  • April 7th , 2017, Stockholm, Sweden — A truck was rammed into a Swedish department store, killing 4 people
  • June 3rd, 2017, London, England — a car rammed into crowds on London Bridge, after which the attackers left the car and stabbed several people within the area. 7 died and about 50 were injured.
  • August 17th, 2017, Barcelona, Spain — a car plowed into pedestrians in the Las Ramblas tourist area, killing 12 and injuring over 100. Of all of this incidents, the most deadly attack happened in Nice, France whereby a truck mowed down dozens of people who celebrating Bastille Day. As a result of this attack, more than 87 people were killed and 435 were injured.

Towards the end of 2014, IS media group al-Hayat gave a 8-minute video whereby French jihadi Abu Salman al-Faranci directed his audience: “Terrorize them & don’t allow them to sleep as a result of fear and horror.” He went on to applaud car-ramming as the perfect alternative for travelling to Iraq and Syria to fight: “There are arms and vehicles available and targets ready to be run over… murder them and spit on their faces and kill them using the vehicles.” (Jensen, 2016)

IS also applauded car-ramming attacks in its 3rd Ed of its English-language Rumiyah magazine, released in 2016, motivating the usage of cars to carry out attacks owing to the fact that “very few really understand/know the lethal and destructive capability of the vehicles and its ability to affecting huge numbers of casualties if they are used in a premeditated form”. The magazine went on to instruct its sympathizers to steal such cars if needed. From the above findings, it would be prudent to say that attacks using vehicle need to be treated as a related phenomenon to attacks with guns (Cohen, 2005, p,30). Car-ramming attacks perfectly meet the criteria for a successful terrorist technique – undemanding of skill, legitimate among the perpetrators, and very effective. The terrorist have just become innovative in the manner in which they are carrying out their attacks.

The primary aim of the terrorist is not only to instill fear in the society, but also to cause as much harm as possible. It is no wonder that the terrorist have resorted to ramming cars into public places. By doing this, they are able to cause as much damage/harm as possible. Terrorist have resulted to using Cars instead of guns and knives owing to the fact that it makes it harder for them to be detected by the police.

References

Best Assignment Writing Service, (2017) Terrorism And Society | Assignment Writing Service. Retrieved from https://assignmentwritingservice.net/best

Christopher Michaelsen (2005) Antiterrorism Legislation in Australia: A Proportionate Response to the Terrorist Threat?Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28:4, 321-339, DOI: 10.1080/10576100590950138

Cohen, S. (2005). Post-Moral Torture: From Guantanamo To Abu Ghraib. Journal of , Vol 34 issue 1 pp 25-30.

Douzinas, C. (2003). Humanity, military humanism and the new moral. Journal of Economy and Society, Volume 32 Number 2 pp 159–183.

Jensen, R. (2016). How and why vehicle ramming became the attack of choice for terrorists. Retrieved from The Coversation: https://theconversation.com/how-and-why-vehicle-ramming-became-the-attack-of-choice-for

Kinzer, S. (2015). French, British colonialism grew a root of terrorism. Retrieved from Boston Globe: https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2015/02/11/french-british-colonialism- bred-root-terrorism

Press, N. A. (2002). Origins and Contexts of Terrorism. Retrieved from National Academies Press: : https://www.nap.edu/read/10570/chapter/4

Rasler, Karen & Thompson, William R. (2009): Looking for Waves of Terrorism. In: Terrorism and Political Violence. Volume 21, Issue 1. p.31

Source: Terrorism And Society | Assignment Writing Service